Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Current Uk Animal Welfare - 856 Words

The current UK animal welfare legislations and their objectives are:  ¬ Animal Welfare Act 2006 This Act has for the first time introduced legislation for pet owners meaning that the owners have a legal duty of care to meet the five welfare needs of their pets. The welfare needs are also known as the five freedoms and they are the basic needs of any animal. The law also applies to people who are responsible for animals, such as breeders and those who keep working animals. (APGAW. No Date)  ¬ The Performing Animals (Regulations) Act 1925 This Act regulates the training and exhibition of performing animals as it requires trainers and exhibitors of those animals to be registered with the local authority. The premises where animals are being trained and exhibited can be entered by the police and officers of local authority, which may include a vet. If the police or the local authority detects cruelty or neglect of the animals the magistrates’ court can prohibit or restrict the training or exhibition of the animals and suspend or cancel the trainers or exhibitor’s registration. (APGAW. No Date)  ¬ Pet Animals Act 1951 This legislation protects the welfare of animals which are sold as pets. The Act requires anyone keeping a pet shop to be licenced by the local authority. The local authority must check that the animals are kept in a clean and suitable accommodation; are supplied with appropriate food and drink; and are protected from fire and disease before granting a licence. TheShow MoreRelatedEssay On Mice987 Words   |  4 Pagesof which is the Animals Scientific Procedures Act 1986 (ASPS) which protects non-human vertebrates and cephalopods during scientific research. The act states that research should only be conducted on animals if it is necessary and there are no alternatives. The ‘3Rs’ – Replacement, Reduction and Refinement are an important component of ASPA legislation to protect experimental animals. In our research it would not be possible to replace mice for an alternative such as cultured animal cells (in vitro)Read MoreEssay about The Ethics and Limitations of Animal Research 1550 Words   |  7 Pages The moral status of animals is an issue of much debate in Science. According to The Royal Society, the oldest scientific academy nowadays, it would have been impossible for science and medicine to develop so without animal research (â€Å"The Use of Non-Human Animals in Research†, 2004). Nevertheless, do the human medical benefits really justify the animal suffering in animal research? If so, what should are the possible considerations and limitations related to the matter? It appears to be a challengeRead MoreMicroeconomics : Economic Policies Promote The Welfare Of The Masses1417 Words   |  6 Pagesthat works in decision making with regards to allocation of productive resources among thousands of goods and services (Chand, 2015). There are both theoretical and practical importances in Microeconomics which it helps economic policies promote the welfare of the masses (Chand, 2015). In business, decision making is as complex as the processes where it characterizes consumer’s choice. As supported by Davis (2015), microeconomic data in business is important in making variety of critical choices orRead MoreAnimal Liberation By Peter Singer1329 Words   |  6 PagesKelsi Duncan Engl1030 Mr. Smith 09/24/2014 â€Å"Animal Liberation† Review Peter Singer’s essay on â€Å"Animal Liberation† was published in the New York Review in 1963. Ultimately, in this essay, Singer was trying to get humans to realize how they are treating non-humans, and that changes need to happen. Firstly, Singer claims that animals suffer just like humans do. He uses Jane Goodall and her chimpanzee research as an example. Jane Goodall taught a chimpanzee to talk with sign language, with this sheRead MoreCosts The Irish Sheep Industry1693 Words   |  7 PagesLameness In Sheep Lameness costs the Irish sheep industry approximately â‚ ¬5m annually (O Leary, 2014), and footrot alone costs the UK industry  £8m annually (Nieuwhof and Bishop, 2005). Lameness is a major problem for the sheep industry it causes discomfort and pain in the individuals affected. As such these Individuals are less likely to graze, reducing the animal’s performance; such reductions include: decline in body condition, lower lambing percentage, lower lamb birth weight and viability, reducedRead MoreEssay on Asos Swot Analysis630 Words   |  3 PagesStrengths ASOS has a strong consumer base in the UK market and many Americans already import from the company. In just ten years ASOS became the number one independent retailer in the United Kingdom, so there is defiantly potential for growth in United States. Currently attracts over 6.9 million unique visitors a month and has 2.9 million registered users. ( Products on the current ASOS site are constantly updated, at the rate of up toRead MoreEthics of Animal Testing754 Words   |  3 PagesEthics of Animal Testing For my paper I chose the topic of animal testing because I have always been very passionate for animals and against animal abuse. I have never believed in animal testing and that there were always other alternatives. I wanted to look further into and educate myself about what is being done about this and why it is an ethical issue. I have come up with an axiom to summarize this topic. Testing animals in research revolves around the relative or moral value of humans and animalsRead MoreThe And The Corporate Sector1484 Words   |  6 Pagesprivate sectors are always bashing each other. Blaming one another for these issues will not solve the problem. What will solve the problem is we collectively come together to change our world. One of the biggest issues that we are facing in our current century is climate change. There are certain things that the government and the corporate sector must do to tackle this issue. Although capitalism has its own benefits, the public sector must do some thing in order to regulate our economy, capitalismRead MoreCoca Cola And The Global Market990 Words   |  4 Pagesreduction in carbon emissions, thus having a less adverse effect on the environmental welfare of animals and their surrounding environment, through Coke’s production line. This provides a market opportunity for coke to establish them as a brand, which has a vested interest in the welfare of the planet, and appeal to consumers who are environmentally concerned. Social – The main social changes that will affect Coke in the UK include, shifts in consumer taste and income, as well as increasing health concernsRead MoreEssay on Animal Testing in the Research Field1416 Words   |  6 PagesAnimal research, or animal testing, is the use of animals in scientific researches to study and develop drugs for the life-taking diseases that human beings contract. It has been practiced for hundreds of years. Animal testing helps produced many vaccines and other drugs, like penicillin, and thus, save many human lives. On the other hand, animal testing also causes pain and kills a lot of animals used during the researches that many people oppose this practice. Supporters show their support, while

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Types Of Criminal Justice Systems Law Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2169 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Law Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? Across the world there are many different types of criminal justice system to keep and maintain order and peace within their area of jurisdiction creating a social code of conduct, the law. The criminal justice system tries to deter individuals from disrupting this peace and order by pressuring them with the notion of punishment forcing the individual to abide to the law. These punishments differ from being a punitive one or a rehabilitative nature. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Types Of Criminal Justice Systems Law Essay" essay for you Create order By doing so the criminal justice has certain power to control society by means of policing. Policing plays an important role in the criminal justice system as it is the first step to criminal proceedings following investigation, judgment and finally punishment where applicable. The criminal justice system can be categorized in three main parts; policing where the investigation is held, the courts for judgement to take place and corrections where the type of punishment is looked over by the correctional authorities (Bernard, 2011). As mentioned before there are many different types of criminal justice system, the author of this literature will be comparing and contrasting the Japanese criminal justice system with the England and Waless system. England and Wales criminal justice follows an adversarial system where the magistrate or a jury hears two opposing views of a case. The defence and the prosecution parties can present their case as how they deem fit by calling and examining w itnesses as they like within certain restriction provided by the law (Chapman Niven, 2000). Unlike the England and Waless system the Japanese system follows a semi-inquisitorial scheme where a judge is present in the preparation of evidence with the police and has a say in the way different parties are to show their case in trial. The judge asks questions to the witnesses while the defendant and the prosecution parties can enquire additional questions only through the judge (Mortimer, 1994). Furthermore the Japanese system does not use the jury system as the England and Wales do. This system of the Japanese is called the Monopolization of Prosecution and gives exclusive power to public prosecutors only. Nevertheless there is an exception to the Monopolization of Prosecution and is practiced when a victim of crime believes that the public prosecutors are abusing of their exclusive power. He or she can apply to the court to order the case to be tried. If the order is well-founded then the court must order the case to be tried and a practicing lawyer is selected by the court to exercise the role of the public prosecutor, however if otherwise the order is dismissed (UNAFEI, 2010). A common characteristic in both the Japanese and the England and Wales system is the presumption of innocence until proven guilty and that the standard proof must be beyond the reasonable doubt. This presumption of innocence applies at every stage of the criminal procedure and in case of doubt the defendants view will always be favoured. (Chapman Niven, 2000; UNAFEI, 2010). Throughout all Japan there is one territorial jurisdiction; the same procedure is followed in all criminal cases under the Code of Criminal Procedure (CCP) and the Rules of Criminal Procedure. The constitution protects most of the rights of the individual regarding court trial and criminal investigation under several articles. A few article are listed below Article 31: no person shall be deprived of life, o r liberty, nor shall any other criminal penalty be imposed, except according to procedure established by law, Article 33: no person shall be arrested except upon warrant issued by a competent judicial officer, which specifies the offences with which the person is charged, unless he is arrested in the commission of the offences. Article 38: no person shall be compelled to testify against himself, and that a confession made under compulsion, torture, or threat, or after prolonged detention or confinement shall not be admitted in evidence. It further provides that no person shall be convicted or punished in cases where the only proof against him is his own confession. Article 40:any person, in case he is acquitted after he has been detained or confined, may sue the State for redress as provided by law. (UNAFEI, 2010, p. 20) Similarly with the England and Wales criminal system the individual has many different rights under the The Human Rights Act 1998. In the same way as Ar ticle 40 in the Japanese constitution the individual can sue the State to the European Court. A few articles from this Act is as follows Article 2 Right to life Article 3 Prohibition of torture Article 6 Right to a fair trial Article 7 No punishment without law this article states that no person can be punished for an action which did not constitute a criminal offence at the time it was committed. Article 18 Limitation on use of restrictions on rights this article ensures that the restrictions on rights in the convention are not used for any purpose other than those for which they have been prescribed. (Chapman Niven, 2000, p. 5-6) The Police In Japan a police Law was put into force in 1947, completely amended in 1954 in order to offer an efficient and effective police organization showing considerable respect to the principle of local autonomy. The police are trained in order to safe guard the national public in matters relating to serious natural catastrophe creating public disorder and matters relating to civil disturbances. The police in Japan are called Prefectural Police. For some reason or another, as according to the Cabinet Order, in Japan there can only be 278,300 prefectural police. It is estimated that in Japan 1st October 2003, the population was of 127,619,000 meaning that there is one police officer for every 460 persons in the country. The Police law stipulates the duties of the police as protection of life, person and property of individuals; prevention, suppression and detection of crime and apprehension of suspects; control of traffic; and other functions necessary to maintain public peace and order ( UNAFEI, 2010, p. 2). According to the police law crime detection is one of the main duties of the all the police officers including patrolmen in all police jurisdiction. (UNAFEI, 2010) In England and Wales the police have more or less the same role as the Prefectural Police. However for England and Wales, before the Police Act of 1964, the idea of the police was regarded as police force to enforce the law. Within time difficulties and concerns were experienced with the public and these experiences changed the mentality of a police force to police service. A difference from the Prefectural Police is that in England and Wales, the police have different number of forces. These forces have specific territorial powers such as the British Transport police, the Ministry of Defence Police and Royal Parks Police (Chapman Niven, 2000). In Japan there is only one force that controls different territories. The Courts In Japan there are five types of courts in Japan and are all integrated into a unitary national judicial system. These courts are; the Supreme Court, High Court, District Court, Family Court and Summary Court. The Summary Court; where all cases are heard by a single judge. This courts jurisdiction is very limited to small offences, offences not more than  ¥1,400,000 (ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬12,496.65), punishable by a fine or a lighter punishment for example penal detention or a minor fine, and other minor criminal offences. A few examples of minor criminal offences include habitual gambling, embezzlement, petty theft and buying or accepting stolen property. The Summary may not give a prison sentence or a graver punishment however can impose imprisonment with labour not exceeding three years. When a case has an outcome of imprisonment of more than three years, the Summary Court can transfer it to the District Court. (UNAFEI, 2010) The Family Court; has jurisdic tion over family issues and juvenile delinquency involving persons under the age of 20. In addition this court hears adult criminal cases that involve offences harmful to juveniles. (UNAFEI, 2010) The District Court; hears all cases at the first glance except those set aside for the Summary court, Family Court and the High Court. Most of the time cases are tried by a single judge. Nevertheless if there is the possibility of sentencing a life imprisonment, imprisonment for more than one year or death, three judges hear the case. (UNAFEI, 2010) The High Court; has jurisdiction appeals from decisions made by the District Court, Family Court and the Summary court in criminal cases heard by three judges. The high court even hears cases involving insurrection where 5 judges handle the case. (UNAFEI, 2010) The Supreme Court; situated in Tokyo, is the highest court and consists of 15 Justices including the Chief Justice, nine of them qualified to be a Japanese legal practitioner an d five of those who has extensive knowledge of the law and is at least 40 years of age. This court exercises appellate jurisdiction. Articles 81 of the Constitution state that this court is the court of last resort and is to decide on the constitutionality of any law, regulation, order or official act. The Supreme Court implements this power by rendering case-specific conclusions not by declaring constitutionality in a general way. It generally hears appeals that were tried at a high court if and only if (1) a violation of the Constitution or an error in constitutional error, or (2) adjudication contrary to precedents of Supreme Court or High Courts (UNAFEI, 2010) In England and Wales the Courts there are five courts too, the lowest court is the Magistrates Courts where over 96% of criminal cases are dealt with this court. The Magistrates Court is tried by at least two lay magistrate but normally three magistrates hears the trial. A district judge can hear a case on his or her ow n. The magistrate court acts as the Summary Court, The Family Court and the District Court of Japan but can only impose a prison sentence of less than six months or 12months for consecutive sentences, nor can exceed a fine of  £5000 (ÃÆ' ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã… ¡Ãƒâ€šÃ‚ ¬5,926.98). (Chapman Niven, 2000) Three other courts which are under the Supreme Court are the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the Crown Court. The Crown court hears trials of indictable offences and appeals from the court of Magistrates. Appeals from cases originating in the magistrates courts on points of law and proceedings are heard at the High Court. Appeals arising from the Crown court and the High Courts are heard at the Court of Appeal where the final Appeal is heard at the House of Lords. The House of Lords is made up of Lords of Appeal chosen amongst the judges of the Court of Appeal. The High court in Japan is equivalent to the Supreme Courts in England and Wales whereas the House of Lords is similar t o the Supreme Court of Japan. (UNAFEI, 2010; Chapman Niven, 2000) Corrections After a verdict is given and the individual is found guilty, apart from imprisonment there are many other sanctions that both the Japanese and the England and Waless system. Both countries have Probation Officers, Halfway Houses, Parole, Fines and Suspended sentences. The Japanese constitution puts a good effort in Probation and Parole where the offender is put within society supervised. Many citizens volunteer as an assistant probationer or parole. Furthermore in Japan Juveniles are given more attention in order for them to rehabilitate; Living Guidance, Academic Education, Physical and Health Education is provided. The prisons in Japan never suffered overcrowding as the rehabilitation of the offender was more important than retaliation. In England and Wales, effort is put more in community sentences, resulting in less concentration with probation and parole. Community service, Combination, curfew and drug treatment and testing orders are all an option. Community service is whe n a prisoner does unpaid work for the community with a minimum if 40hours and a maximum of 240hours in twelve months. The Combination order works hand in hand with a probationer where community service is given with the other rules of the probationer. Curfew order controls the persons liberty of a person to leave an address at certain hours. These different option were put into force as a solution to overcrowding in the prison system where again the mentality has changed throughout the years. A difference in sentencing between the Japanese and Englands system is the capital punishment. In England and Wales the capital punishment for murder was abolished in 1965. However it was kept but unused for crimes such as treason and other offences. In September 1998 capital punishment was completely abolished under the Crime and Disorder Act. In Japan the capital punishment is still practiced for homicide and treason. However the homicide must include aggravating factors and/or multiple mu rders. Conclusion Even though the English system has been practised before the Japanese system, there is not much of a distinction between the two as one would perceive it to be due to cultural difference. Most of the rights of the individual are protected in both countries; however power is not always exclusive within public prosecutors. So much so, even though power is mainly in the hands of the Japanese public prosecutors, the citizen still has right to go against such mentioned power.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Microeconomics Supply and Demand and Price - 5551 Words

CHAPTER 1: Resource Utilization amp; Economics Part I: Identification Directions: Fill in the blanks. ____________________ 1. Refers to the scarce resources in demand. ____________________ 2. Considered the father of economics. ____________________ 3. The Greek word for economics. ____________________ 4. Developed the theory of political economy. ____________________ 5. Considered as the bible of economics. ____________________ 6. Developed the concept of IS-LM model. ____________________ 7. Refers to economics â€Å"as it is†. ____________________ 8. Science that manages limited resources in demand. ____________________ 9. Developed the theory of money, employment and interest. ____________________ 10. Refers to economics â€Å"as it should be†.†¦show more content†¦Part III: Definition of Terms. 1. Economics – the efficient allocation of the scarce means of production toward the satisfaction of human needs and wants. 2. Microeconomics – the branch of economics, which deals with the individual decisions of units of the economy – firms and households, and how their choice determine relative prices of goods and factors or production. 3. Macroeconomics – the branch of economics that studies the relationship among broad economic aggregates like national income, national output, money supply, bank deposits, total volumes of savings, investment, consumption expenditure, general price level of commodities, government spending, inflation, recession, employment, and money supply. 4. Capitalism – economic system that is based on private ownership of the means of production and the creation of goods and services for profit. 5. Communism – a revolutionary socialist movement to create classless, money less, and stateless social order structured upon common ownership of the means of production as well as social, political and economics ideology. 6. Mixed Economy – economy that applies a mixture of three forms of decision-making. 7. Equity – justice and fairness. 8. Land – refers to all natural resources, which are given by, and found in nature, and are, therefore, not manmade. 9. Production – the problem of production is generally a concern of producers. They determine the needs, wants, and demands ofShow MoreRelatedThe Demand And Supply Theory Of Microeconomics1055 Words   |  5 Pagesscience and is central to the concerns and problems around the globe† (2003). Microeconomics covers the micro aspects viz. fundamentals, elements of demand and supply, costs, production formation, revenue, markets etc. (Samuelson and Nordhaus, 2003). With that being said, a good knowledge of these above listed aspects is necessary for management students as well as managers. Therefore, a thorough understanding of microeconomics and its principles is vital for effective decision-making. However, sinceRead MoreSupply and Demand Simulation983 Words   |  4 Pages   ECO365 Supply and Demand Simulation Student Name ECO/365 – Principles of Microeconomics Instructor Name Date Introduction Supply and Demand is a phrase that every one hears in one way or another, Supply and demand phrase according to Colander, (2010) is the most used phrase by economist and the reason is because the phrase provides a good â€Å"off-the-cuff† answer for many question that have to do with economy. Example why are interest rates to Low? Because supply and demand. Why is GasolineRead MoreLaws of Supply and Demand1244 Words   |  5 Pages Microeconomics and the Laws of Supply and DemandECO/365October 13, 2014Professor CoulibalyComedian P.J. O’Rourke said it best when he said, â€Å"microeconomics concerns things that economists are specifically wrong about, while macroeconomics concerns things economists are wrong about generally. Or to be more technical, microeconomics is about money you don’t have, and macroeconomics is about money the government is out of† (Beggs, 2014). On a serious note however, macroeconomics and microeconomicsRead MoreSupply and Demand Simulation819 Words   |  4 PagesSupply and Demand Simulation A simulation was conducted to understand supply and demand when renting out apartment homes. This paper will briefly explain two microeconomics and two macroeconomics principles, it will include one shift of the supply curve and demand curve in the simulation. For each of the shifts the affect of the equilibrium price, quantity, and decision making will be analyzed. A description of supply and demand from the simulation and how to apply it in the workplace is includedRead Moreeco/365 week 2 individual1293 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿ Supply and Demand Simulation ECO 365 Supply and Demand Simulation The Supply and Demand simulation was reviewed on the student website demonstrated the concepts of the concepts of microeconomics and macroeconomics. The principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics were explained and applied throughout the simulation demonstrate the rationale for the shifts in the supply and demand curve. Each shift is analyzed showing the effects of the equilibriumRead MoreSupply and Demand Simulation1030 Words   |  5 PagesSupply and Demand Simulation ECO/365 Supply and Demand Simulation In the supply and demand simulation a neighborhood called Atlantis is given for the setting. Atlantis is a small city with open spaces, low population, and a low crime rate. There are plenty of sidewalks and street systems for easy access to the highway. The housing in Atlantis is detached homes and apartments. The supply and demand simulation consists of microeconomics and macroeconomics. The simulation presents shifts in theRead MoreMicroeconomics and the Laws of Supply and Demand Essay703 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿ Microeconomics and the Laws of Supply and Demand ECO/365 Principles of Microeconomics August 18, 2014 Sam Pirnazar Microeconomics and the Laws of Supply and Demand Abstract The objective of the laws and the supply and demand simulation is to apply the supply and demand concepts to provide a better understanding on how to use the curves in order to figure out the equilibrium in the market for leasing two bedroom apartments. The simulationRead MoreEco 365 Supply and Demand Simulation Essay855 Words   |  4 PagesSupply and Demand Simulation ECO/365 November 26, 2012 The purpose of this paper is to discuss the Supply and Demand simulation from the student website. The idea is to identify two microeconomic and two macroeconomic principles present in the simulation and to explain why these principles are categorized as macro or microeconomic. The paper will also determine one shift of the supply curve and one shift of the demand curve from the simulation, as well as why theseRead MoreEconomics Affects Our Daily Life1576 Words   |  7 Pagesvarious desires. Different aspects of economy analyzes and studies production, factors of production, demand and supply analysis, consumption, distribution, market structure etc. Question 1 Economics can be classified into two main branches, which are macroeconomics and microeconomics. Macroeconomics refers to study of economic aggregates (aggregate demand, aggregate supply etc.) while Microeconomics refers to study of behavior and performance of individual parts of economy such as firm or householdRead MoreSupply and Demand Simulation Paper886 Words   |  4 PagesSupply and Demand Simulation Paper ECO/365 Week 2 Individual Assignment February 25, 2013 Supply and Demand The analysis will identify two microeconomics and two macroeconomics principles or concepts from the simulation, and explain why each principle or concept is in the category of macroeconomics or microeconomics. The analysis will identify at least one shift of the supply curve, and one shift of the demand curve from the simulation and what causes the shifts. The analysis will show

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Internal Structure Of The Earth Essay Example For Students

Internal Structure Of The Earth Essay InternalStructure of the EarthWhat is the evidence for our knowledgeof the internal structure of the Earth?As we enter the twenty first century weare beginning to learn more and more about the composition of the Earth. Early predictions have thrown up some rather strange and peculiar thoughtsas to what is making up our Earth, but now day? ¦s scientistscan be confident that the Earth is made up of what they think. As fromexperiments and other sources of information a picture to what is reallydown there is becoming much clearer. So how do these scientists know that theEarth? ¦s sections are made up of different compositions, andhow do we know that the physical state of each layer is what it is?The outmost layer of the Earth is the crust,this is what we stand on and covers the earth entirely. It is made up ofmany different rocks and minerals, we know that the composition of theEarth? ¦s crust is generally the same due to the mines andboreholes that humans have made down into it. Mines that have been duggo down and still bring up valuable minerals that can be found just asclose to the Earth? ¦s surface. The deepest goes down around3km into the earth, and the temperature is 70?XC, the only way forminers to work is because of the air conditioning, and still the type ofrock looks the same all around. Also boreholes that have been drilled asfar as half way into the Earth? ¦s crust bring up rocks thatlook very similar to the ones on the surface. So scientists can safelysay that the Earth has a crust which i s very similar in composition allthe way down until the mantle is reached. When earthquakes happen they produce twotypes of waves P-waves and S-waves. Primary waves (p-waves) are the fastestwaves, they travel away from a seismic event. Primary waves are longitudinal,they can travel through solids, liquids and gases. The secondary waves(s-waves) travel slower than the primary waves, and are traverse waves. This type of wave can only travel through solids. Measuring these wavesis called seismology. Scientists have known for a long time thatthe lava, which comes out from volcanoes when they erupt, was from themantle. The asthenosphere is the probable source of much basaltic magma,this is because the velocity in S-waves is slowed down and partially absorbedin the asthenosphere. This gives the characteristics that the waves arepassing through a solid, which the mantle is, but that contains a smallamount of liquid. Also when the volcano erupt occasionally they shoot outsolid nodules that have come from the solid rock in the mantle, the so-calledplumbing of the mantle. These rocks have been broken of and carried outwith the flow of the lava, this type of rock is called peridotite and iswhat mostly makes up the mantle. It is a fairly recent discovery to provethat the mantle of the earth is not the only part of the interior. Seismologyis a new discovery this century that enables observations of natural groundvibration signals, basically the study of earthquakes. It can also be thestudy of artificially generated seismic signals. Scientists then started to record thesesignals from earthquakes using seismographs, which are set in stationsaround the world to record the signals. In all some 125 stations existaround the world. They noticed that the P and S-waves did not travel ina straight line through the Earth, they came to the presumption that theEarth? ¦s mantle was made up of many different materials. Thiscaused the P and S-waves to travel at different speeds, because of theway the materials conduct the waves at different velocities. The wavesalso bent as they went from layer to layer, this caused their path throughthe interior of the earth to be curved. .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 , .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .postImageUrl , .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 , .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:hover , .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:visited , .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:active { border:0!important; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:active , .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891 .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue459372014ea630caf0921213c61a891:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Cuban Missle Crisis EssayThis was then put into practice, so afteran earthquake happened in a country the P and S-waves were sent out. Furtheraround the globe the waves were expected to be received after a coupleof minutes. Which they would, first the P-waves came followed by the S-waves,with an interval time in the middle. This time could then be scaled upto give the results of what they though would be the times for the P andthen the S-waves to arrive at other destinations. This theory was correct,further away from the point of the epicentre, first the P-waves arrivedfollowed by the S-waves a few minutes later. So then they thought thatthis would be the case for all over the globe, but they found out somethingelse. They tried to predict the time they expected the waves to reach adestination on exactly on the other side of the globe, so they scaled upthe time interval between the two waves arriving. First the P-wave arrived,on time as they expected but the S-wave didn? ¦t, this wasbecause the P-waves can travel through any physical state. However S-wavescan only travel through solids which is why they can pass through the mantle,so a change of physical state must happen in the middle of the mantle somewhere. The area where the S-waves enter and do not come back out is called theshadow zone. The P-waves also have a shadow zone. This would be from about105?X to 142?X marked from the Focus of the earthquake. Thisis because when the P-waves enter the core they are bent downwards, theyare then bent down again when they leave the core-mantle boundary. So nowaves can emerge at the surface before 142?X. From these results scientists are convincedthat inside the mantle there is a molten core that must be blocking outthe S-waves. So scientists have very good evidence toprove what they believe to be inside of the mantle. They even have theirways to prove what they believe the core to be made up of, they think thereare two layers, an inner core surrounded by the outer core. The outer coreis believed to be made up of liquid iron and the actual centre of the coreis made of solid iron. They have numerous reasons to back up thistheory. Scientists can work out how big the massof the earth is, not by trying to weigh it because that is merely impossible. Instead they used the gravity on the earth to help them. We know the velocityat which objects fall to the earth, so from this scientists were able towork out the mass of the earth. So they found the total mass of the earth,and compared that to a mass made up of just the crust and the mantle. Theycould get this mass reading because they know the density of the crustand the mantle. However even after working this mass out the total amountwas well short, compared with the mass they found from using the velocityat which objects fall to the earth. So they were convinced by these resultsthat the mantle was not the only thing down there, they put the lack ofmass to believing that something heavier and denser was in the middle. When the earth formed it originally condensed,by gravitational attraction of cosmic dust and gas. The continuing contractionof these materials caused them to heat, as did some of the radioactivityof some of the heavier elements. As this progressed the earth became veryhot and it began to melt. This caused the different layers to form in theearth, because all the lighter materials moved up to the surface to producethe crust. So the heavier materials like the metals iron and nickel sankto form the core, the materials in the mantle were made form the silicatesthat didn? ¦t sink or float. .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 , .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .postImageUrl , .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 , .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:hover , .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:visited , .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:active { border:0!important; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:active , .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2 .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ue1b23e42413bfe3063eb7e13006554c2:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Voting EssayWhen meteorites reach the surface of ourplanet before they are entirely consumed, they provide us with valuableinformation. Meteorites are believed to be fragments from other planets,formed some 4.6 billion years ago. Around the same time as the earth wasbeen formed. These meteorites are mostly made up of iron, this is whatexcites scientists. As they believe that this is proof that the middlecore of our earth is made from solid iron. Thinking that meteorites arepart of planets that have broken up and sent fragments flying out intospace. So they know that the inner core is solidiron but why when the outer core is a liquid iron. Well as the depth increasesin the earth then so does the pressure. So scientists put the solid middledown the fact that the pressure becomes too much for the liquid iron, sothe pressure solidifies the core. Another point of evidence is the earth? ¦smagnetic field, again suggesting an iron core, because iron is a metalthat can be magnetised. The magnetic field is thought to be in the liquidouter core, because of the readily movement, and iron been a good conductor. This is what may be required for a dynamo with the capacity to generateenough current to produce the earth? ¦s magnetic field. Theliquid iron is thought be stirred in a motion by heat from the core. Thisaction is thought to produce an electric current and therefore the magneticfield. This is another explanation as to the outer core been liquid, becauseif it wasn? ¦t then where would the magnetic field come from. As permanent magnetism cannot be kept with temperatures exceeding 500?XC,however the outer core may well produce electric currents because of thefree movement. The inner core would not be able to do this, as it is asolid.

Saturday, April 4, 2020

South African Breweries free essay sample

SAB has the leading position to produce and distribute both alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. it’s been registered in 1895 in London and since then with momentous profit and prevailing market position it has develop its business in home sectors as well. SAB was fully incorporated in 1970 after the shifting of its head office from London to Johannesburg. Government put high restriction on the expansion and international business of SAB. From 1955 to the following seven years beer production was the highest taxed beverage and SAB had to respond to competitors’ acquisition and production and distribution rationalisation.In 1960 it took over Stellenbosch Farmers’ Winery and obtained brewing license locally for Amstel and Carling, Black Label and Guinnes which played major turn of its expansion. Within 1979 SAB could capture about 99 percent South African market alongside major control over Lesotho, Swaziland and Rhodesia. SAB was the first organisation in the country which published a non-discriminatory employment code in 1978. We will write a custom essay sample on South African Breweries or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The Lion Match Company merged with SAB in 1987. SAB concentrated on developing three mega breweries in the country in 1990 and the invention of joint venture in Zambia, Mozambique and Angola followed in the following years.The company got dominance over 98 percent of market and faced a little left expansion in local business and tried to expand globally in 2000. It made its way to central Europe in 1993 with the acquisition of the largest brewery of Hungary Dreher. In the following year it established operation in Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Russia and Slovakia. SAB had spread small business with Rolling Black Beer one of the breweries in United States of America as well. Then 2001 it expanded its business into Central America. In 2001 SAB had production of 77m hectolitres of alcoholic and non- alcoholic beverages and dominated as the fifth largest brewer in the world covering 21 countries. In 1990 the head quarter moved back to London. In this report i would like to narrow down my focus on SABs expansion globally by acquiring the second largest brewery of America; the Miller Brewing Company and having new name as SABMiller in 2002 and it became the second largest volume in the world. Though it is facing some profit margin difficulties in North America because its competitors are lowering down the price of beer.To keep up with the market over there SABMiller has to compromise with the margin of profit. Challenge for the Company No arguments come when SAB admits that South African market is fully dominated by them. Though it had made some tactically poor judgment while expanding in Hungary and US market. Among the challenges SAB faced were: In 2001 it acquires 58 percent interest in breweries in Hunduras and El Salvador which cost them US$ 500million. Further it spent a sum of US$5. 6 bn when it acquired Miller from Altria. To expand its business in Western Europe SAB acquired a major company in Italy named Peroni and spent US$ 270 million.In Africa SAB had to encounter problems when for low income in Malawi the industry does not appear to be set up. Again in Ghana SAB has made its entrance where there is already good competition between Guinness and Heineken. In Nigeria governments has imposed restriction on importing brewing materials as barley. So quality and consumption dropped sharply there. After the acquisition of Miller in US; SABMiller faced problem within six months. SAB had to go on with the existing CEO as head of SABMiller and later on the sacked him. Altria holds 23 percent shares of SABMiller.According to some experts debates SAB has spent too much for acquiring Miller. Again SABMiller is also facing difficulties to keep up in the competition with the competitors in US market. In addition to this in America the Beer market is in downward trend as the Americans are continuously and increasingly turning to wine than beer. This has adverse impact on SABMiller’s profit margin. Another market dominant competitor Anheuser-Busch (AH) upgraded its profit margin to 17. 3% by raising its production where Millers and Coors has (9. 3%) and (8. 9%) respectively.Then to compete with AH SABMiller and Coors went as a joint venture which has very positive impact on their business. Policy/ Strategy The long term direction and scope of a company which are aimed to achieve advantage for the organisation using its configuration or resources in a challenging surrounding is described strategy. In other sense strategy is – -The place where the business aimed to reach in time span. -The market where the business will compete and activities of the competitive market -The process of doing better in this competition -Required ability or resources How to get up with the external and internal environmental factors -The values and expectation of the stakeholders According to Henry Mintzberg strategy comprises five Ps: Plan, Position, Pattern, Perspective and Poly. Andrew (1998) states the term strategy in form of decision in a company which helps identifying and disclosing the target, underlying objectives and company goals. Strategy helps to create major policy and plan to achieve company objectives. The range of the business to follow for the company is also described by strategy. Micheal Porter narrates strategy is about being different or unique.According to him within strategy an organisation purposely sets up a unique package of activities to deliver a mix of value. Paradoxes and debates around strategy The theory of strategy is an academic field which is diversified by many experts as they expressed on the base of different understanding. Thus theories derived from different experts have contradiction as well. Some of the renowned experts as Whittington (2002), Mintzberg (1990, 1998), Schendel (1994) and Kuhn (1996, 1970) have described strategy with the help of several schools. In this study i will try to focus on Mintzberg and Whittington theories.

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Definition and Examples of Senders in Communication

Definition and Examples of Senders in Communication In the  communication process, the sender is the individual who initiates a message  and is also called the  communicator or source of communication. The sender might be a  speaker, a writer, or someone who merely gestures. The individual or the group of individuals who responds to the sender is called the receiver  or audience. In communication and speech theory, the reputation of the sender is important in providing credibility and validation to his or her statements and speech, but attractiveness and friendliness, too, play roles in a receivers interpretation of a senders message. From the  ethos  of the senders rhetoric to the  persona  he or she portrays, the senders role in communication sets not only the tone but the expectation of the conversation between the sender and the audience. In writing, though, the response is delayed and relies more on the senders reputation than image. Communication Process Every communication involves two key elements: the sender and the receiver, wherein the sender conveys an idea or concept, seeks information, or expresses a thought or emotion, and the receiver gets that message. In Understanding Management, Richard Daft and Dorothy Marcic explain how the sender can communicate by selecting symbols with which to compose a message. Then this tangible formulation of the idea is sent to the receiver, where it is decoded to interpret the meaning. As a result, being clear and concise as a sender is important to start the communication well, especially in written correspondence. Unclear messages carry with them a higher risk of being misinterpreted and eliciting a response from the audience that the sender did not intend. A.C. Buddy Krizan defines a senders key role in the communication process in Business Communication as including (a) selecting the type of message, (b) analyzing the receiver, (c) using the you-viewpoint, (d) encouraging feedback, and (e) removing communication barriers. Senders Credibility and Attractiveness A thorough analysis by the receiver of a senders message is imperative in conveying the right message and eliciting the desired results because the audiences evaluation of the speaker largely determines their reception of a given form of communication. Daniel J. Levi describes in Group Dynamics for Teams the idea of a good persuasive speaker as a  highly credible communicator, whereas a communicator with low credibility may cause the audience to believe the opposite of the message (sometimes called the boomerang effect). A college professor, he posits, may be an expert in his or her field, but the students might not consider him or her an expert in social or political topics. This idea of a speakers credibility based on perceived competence and character, sometimes called an ethos, was developed more than 2,000 years ago in ancient Greece, according to Deanna Sellnows Confident Public Speaking. Sellnow goes on to say that because listeners often have a difficult time separating the message from the sender, good ideas can easily be discounted if the sender does not establish ethos via content, delivery, and structure.

Friday, February 21, 2020

Graduate Nurse Capabilities Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Graduate Nurse Capabilities - Essay Example I also complied with the different standards under the local OH & S policies in relation to emergency situations and incident reporting. In order to achieve this, I constantly updated myself about these policies and I reviewed said policies as I immersed myself in the nursing process. I also found out that based on the Buddy report, I would benefit from research on endoscopic procedures and diseases. I am eager to explore said areas of research. As an independent nurse, I was able to carry out independent nursing interventions by facilitating a physical, psycho-social, cultural and spiritual environment that was, in turn, able to secure the safety and security of assigned patients. I was able to work constructively with the other members of the health team. Based on the Buddy report, I was also able to communicate well with said members in the delivery of healthcare. Mastering different skills and capabilities like delegating, teaching, learning, and coordinating are just some of the skills which ensure a smooth transition for the graduate nurse into the nursing practice. Delegating is all about assigning the right people to the job; teaching focuses on health education of patients; learning is about continuing nursing education, and coordinating is about collaborating with other nurses and health professionals. I was able to advance my skills in these areas and I was able to learn other skills which are ultimately bound to assist in improving nursing practice and in gaining better patient outcomes.